Welcome to CPA at Law, helping individuals and small businesses plan for the future and keep what they have.

This is the personal blog of Sterling Olander, a Certified Public Accountant and Utah-licensed attorney. For over eight years, I have assisted clients with estate planning and administration, tax mitigation, tax controversies, small business planning, asset protection, and nonprofit law.

I write about any legal, tax, or technological information that I find interesting or useful in serving my clients. All ideas expressed herein are my own and don't constitute legal or tax advice.

Introduction to Qualified Opportunity Funds

The 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act added sections 1400Z-1 and 1400Z-2 to the Internal Revenue Code. The former provides for the designation of certain low-income communities as "qualified opportunity zones," and the later provides certain incentives for investment in such QOZs. IRS Notice 2018-48 provides a full list of population census tracts designated as qualified opportunity zones; investments within these zones can qualify for the new tax incentive.

The tax incentive permits a taxpayer who has realized a capital gain from the sale of property to an unrelated person to invest all or part of the gain amount into a "qualified opportunity fund" within 180 days of the realization event and elect to defer paying tax on the gain amount so invested. The deferral lasts until the earlier of (a) the date that the taxpayer sells the QOF investment or (b) December 31, 2026.

In addition, if the taxpayer holds the QOF investment for at least five years, ten percent of the deferred gain is permanently excluded from taxation, and if the taxpayer holds the QOF investment for at least seven years, a total of fifteen percent of the deferred gain is permanently excluded from taxation. Finally, if the taxpayer holds the QOF investment for at least ten years, all post-acquisition gain on the QOF investment can be permanently excluded from taxation.

A QOF is an entity organized as a corporation or a partnership for the purpose of investing in QOZ property. Such an entity uses IRS Form 8996 to initially certify that it is organized to invest in QOZ property as well as annually report that it meets the investment standards. Generally speaking, a QOF must hold 90% of its assets in QOZ property or pay a penalty. This tax incentive is a new and important opportunity for many taxpayers with capital gains.

See Maule, 597-2nd T.M., Tax Incentives for Economically Distressed Areas; Qualified Opportunity Zones.

Creating Individual Inherited Retirement Accounts from a Trust Account

As I discussed in a previous post, a trust may be named as the beneficiary of a retirement plan upon the plan owner's death. There are complications and disadvantages of doing so, but there are potentially important reasons to name a trust as a retirement plan beneficiary. For example, naming a supplemental needs trust created for an individual with special needs as a retirement plan beneficiary, instead of the individual, will prevent the individual from ceasing to qualify for means-tested public assistance due to inheriting the retirement account.

Upon the termination of the trust that is the named beneficiary of a retirement account, any amounts remaining can be passed to the remainder beneficiaries of the trust intact, meaning in a manner that is not treated or reported as a taxable distribution from the retirement account. Instead, the transfer is treated as a plan-to-plan transfer to individual accounts established for the remainder beneficiaries of the trust.

In my experience, the custodian of the retirement account often requests a reference to legal authority that would allow the transfer of the retirement account from a trust account to separate account(s) in the individual name of the trust beneficiaries. IRS private letter ruling 200750019 is one such authority wherein the IRS permitted a trust that was a retirement plan beneficiary to be bypassed and separate, inherited IRA accounts established for the trust beneficiaries. While not binding, this ruling indicates that the IRS regularly permits this practice and can help assure a custodian that this practice is permissible.